GLOSSARY OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS TERMS

The following are abbreviations and definitions of certain terms commonly used in the oil and gas industry, including in certain instances, within the context of Regulation S-X that sets the form, content of and requirements for financial statements filed under the federal securities laws (Securities Act of 1933, Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the Investment Company Act of 1940).

       3-D Seismic.    Geophysical data that depict the subsurface strata in three dimensions. 3-D seismic typically provides a more detailed and accurate interpretation of the subsurface strata than 2-D, or two-dimensional, seismic.

       Acquisition Costs. Direct and indirect costs incurred to acquire rights to natural resources. See also Rule 4-10(a)(1) of the SEC’s Regulation S-X defining “Acquisition of properties” as Costs incurred to purchase, lease or otherwise acquire a property, including costs of lease bonuses and options to purchase or lease properties, the portion of costs applicable to minerals when land including mineral rights is purchased in fee, brokers’ fees, recording fees, legal costs, and other costs incurred in acquiring properties.

       Analogous Reservoir. Analogous reservoirs, as used in resources assessments, have similar rock and fluid properties, reservoir conditions (depth, temperature and pressure) and drive mechanisms, but are typically at a more advanced stage of development than the reservoir of interest and thus may provide concepts to assist in the interpretation of more limited data and estimation of recovery. When used to support proved reserves, an analogous reservoir refers to a reservoir that shares the following characteristics with the reservoir of interest: (i) same geological formation (but not necessarily in pressure communication with the reservoir of interest); (ii) same environment of deposition; (iii) similar geological structure; and (iv) same drive mechanism. See also Rule 4-10(a)(2) of the SEC’s Regulation S-X.

       Basin. A large natural depression on the earth’s surface in which sediments generally brought by water accumulate.

       Bbl. One stock tank barrel of 42 U.S. gallons liquid volume used herein in reference to crude oil, condensate or NGLs.

        Bcf. One billion cubic feet of natural gas.

        Boe. One barrel of oil equivalent, calculated by converting natural gas to oil equivalent barrels at a ratio of six Mcf of natural gas to one Bbl of oil. This is an energy content correlation and does not reflect a value or price relationship between the commodities.

        Boe/d. One Boe per day.

       British thermal unit or Btu. The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a one-pound mass of water from 58.5 to 59.5 degrees Fahrenheit.

       Completion. Preparation of a well bore and installation of permanent equipment for production of oil, natural gas or NGLs or, in the case of a dry well, reporting to the appropriate authority that the well has been abandoned.

       Condensate. A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in the gaseous phase at original reservoir temperature and pressure, but that, when produced, is in the liquid phase at surface pressure and temperature.

       Conventional Play. An area that is believed to be capable of producing crude oil, NGLs, and natural gas occurring in discrete accumulations in structural and stratigraphic traps.

       Delineation. The process of placing a number of wells in various parts of a reservoir to determine its boundaries and production characteristics.

       Developed Acreage. Acreage consisting of leased acres spaced or assignable to productive wells.  Acreage included in spacing units of infill wells is classified as developed acreage at the time production commences from the initial well in the spacing unit.  As such, the addition of an infill well does not have any impact on a company’s amount of developed acreage.

       Developed Oil and Gas Reserves. Developed oil and gas reserves are reserves of any category that can be expected to be recovered: (i) through existing wells with existing equipment and operating methods or in which the cost of the required equipment is relatively minor compared to the cost of a new well; and (ii) through installed extraction equipment and infrastructure operational at the time of the reserves estimate if the extraction is by means not involving a well. For a complete definition of developed oil and gas reserves, refer to the SEC’s Regulation S-X, Rule 4-10(a)(6).

       Development project. The means by which petroleum resources are brought to the status of economically producible. As examples, the development of a single reservoir or field, an incremental development in a producing field or the integrated development of a group of several fields and associated facilities with a common ownership may constitute a development project.

       Development costs. Costs incurred to obtain access to proved reserves and to provide facilities for extracting, treating, gathering and storing the oil and natural gas. For a complete definition of development costs, refer to the SEC’s Regulation S-X, Rule 4-10(a)(7).

       Development well. A well drilled within the proved area of an oil or natural gas reservoir to the depth of a stratigraphic horizon known to be productive.

        Differential. An adjustment to the price of oil or natural gas from an established spot market price to reflect differences in the quality and/or location of oil or natural gas.

        Dry well. A well found to be incapable of producing hydrocarbons in sufficient quantities such that proceeds from the sale of such production exceed production expenses and taxes.

        Economically producible. The term economically producible, as it relates to a resource, means a resource which generates revenue that exceeds, or is reasonably expected to exceed, the costs of the operation. For a complete definition of economically producible, refer to the SEC’s Regulation S-X, Rule 4-10(a)(10).

        Estimated ultimate recovery (EUR). The sum of reserves remaining as of a given date and cumulative production as of that date.

        Exploitation. Drilling or other projects that may target proven or unproven reserves (such as probable or possible reserves), but that generally have a lower risk than that associated with exploration projects.

        Exploration costs. Costs incurred in identifying areas that may warrant examination and in examining specific areas that are considered to have prospects of containing oil and natural gas reserves, including costs of drilling exploratory wells and exploratory-type stratigraphic test wells. For a complete definition of exploration costs, refer to the SEC’s Regulation S-X, Rule 4-10(a)(12).

        Exploratory well. A well drilled to find a new field or to find a new reservoir in a field previously found to be productive of oil or natural gas in another reservoir. For a complete definition of exploratory well, refer to the SEC’s Regulation S-X, Rule 4-10(a)(13).

        Extension well. An extension well is a well drilled to extend the limits of a known reservoir.

        Farm-in or farm-out. An agreement under which the owner of a working interest in an oil or natural gas lease assigns the working interest or a portion of the working interest to another party who desires to drill on the leased acreage. Generally, the assignee is required to drill one or more wells in order to earn its working interest in the acreage. The assignor usually retains a royalty or reversionary interest in the lease. The working interest received by an assignee is a “farm-in” while the working interest transferred by the assignor is a “farm-out.”

        Field. An area consisting of a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs all grouped on, or related to, the same individual geological structural feature or stratigraphic condition. The field name refers to the surface area, although it may refer to both the surface and the underground productive formations. For a complete definition of field, refer to the SEC’s Regulation S-X, Rule 4-10(a)(15).

        Formation. A layer of rock which has distinct characteristics that differs from nearby rock.

        Gross acres or gross wells. The total acres or wells, as the case may be, in which a working interest is owned.

       Held by Operations. A provision in an oil and gas lease that extends the stated term of the lease as long as drilling operations are ongoing on the property.

        Held by production. Acreage covered by a mineral lease that perpetuates a company’s right to operate a property as long as the property produces a minimum paying quantity of oil or natural gas.

        Horizontal drilling. A drilling technique used in certain formations where a well is drilled vertically to a certain depth and then drilled at a right angle within a specified interval.

       Hydraulic Fracturing. The technique of improving a well’s production or injection rates by pumping a mixture of fluids into the formation and rupturing the rock, creating an artificial channel. As part of this technique, sand or other material may also be injected into the formation to keep the channel open, so that fluids or natural gases may more easily flow through the formation.

       Infill well. A subsequent well drilled in an established spacing unit to the addition of an already established productive well in the spacing unit.  Acreage on which infill wells are drilled is considered developed commencing with the initial productive well established in the spacing unit.  As such, the addition of an infill well does not have any impact on a company’s amount of developed acreage.

        MBbl. One thousand barrels of crude oil, condensate or NGLs.

        MBoe. One thousand Boe.

        Mcf. One thousand cubic feet of natural gas.

        Mcf/d. One Mcf per day.

        MMBbl. One million barrels of crude oil, condensate or NGLs.

        MMBoe. One million Boe.

        MMBtu. One million British thermal units.

        MMcf. One million cubic feet of natural gas.

        Net acres. The percentage of total acres an owner has out of a particular number of acres, or a specified tract. An owner who has 50% interest in 100 acres owns 50 net acres.

        Net production. Production that is owned by us less royalties and production due to others.

        Net revenue interest. A working interest owner’s gross working interest in production less the royalty, overriding royalty, production payment and net profits interests.

        NGLs. Natural gas liquids. Hydrocarbons found in natural gas which may be extracted as liquefied petroleum gas and natural gasoline.

        NYMEX. The New York Mercantile Exchange.

        Offset operator. Any entity that has an active lease on an adjoining property for oil, natural gas or NGLs purposes.

       Oil and gas producing activities. Oil and gas producing activities include: (A) The search for crude oil, including condensate and natural gas liquids, or natural gas (“oil and gas”) in their natural states and original locations; (B) The acquisition of property rights or properties for the purpose of further exploration or for the purpose of removing the oil or gas from such properties; (C) The construction, drilling, and production activities necessary to retrieve oil and gas from their natural reservoirs, including the acquisition, construction, installation, and maintenance of field gathering and storage systems, such as: (1) Lifting the oil and gas to the surface; and (2) Gathering, treating, and field processing (as in the case of processing gas to extract liquid hydrocarbons); and (D) Extraction of saleable hydrocarbons, in the solid, liquid, or gaseous state, from oil sands, shale, coalbeds, or other nonrenewable natural resources which are intended to be upgraded into synthetic oil or gas, and activities undertaken with a view to such extraction. See also Rule 4-10(a)(16) of the SEC’s Regulation S-X.

       OPEC. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.

        Operator. The individual or company responsible for the development and/or production of an oil or natural gas well or lease.

        Play. A geographic area with hydrocarbon potential.

       Possible Reserves. The additional reserves which analysis of geoscience and engineering data suggest are less likely to be recoverable than Probable Reserves. See also Rule 4-10(a)(17) of the SEC’s Regulation S-X (“When deterministic methods are used, the total quantities ultimately recovered from a project have a low probability of exceeding proved plus probable plus possible reserves. When probabilistic methods are used, there should be at least a 10% probability that the total quantities ultimately recovered will equal or exceed the proved plus probable plus possible reserves estimates.”).

       Probable Reserves. The additional reserves which analysis of geoscience and engineering data indicate are less likely to be recovered than proved reserves but which together with proved reserves, are as likely as not to be recovered. See also Rule 4-10(a)(17) of the SEC’s Regulation S-X (“When deterministic methods are used, it is as likely as not that actual remaining quantities recovered will exceed the sum of estimated proved plus probable reserves. When probabilistic methods are used, there should be at least a 50% probability that the actual quantities recovered will equal or exceed the proved plus probable reserves estimates.”).

        Production costs. Costs incurred to operate and maintain wells and related equipment and facilities, including depreciation and applicable operating costs of support equipment and facilities and other costs of operating and maintaining those wells and related equipment and facilities. For a complete definition of production costs, refer to the SEC’s Regulation S-X, Rule 4-10(a)(20).

        Productive well. A well that is found to be capable of producing hydrocarbons in sufficient quantities such that proceeds from the sale of the production exceed production expenses and taxes.

        Proration unit. A unit that can be effectively and efficiently drained by one well, as allocated by a governmental agency having regulatory jurisdiction.

        Prospect. A specific geographic area which, based on supporting geological, geophysical or other data and also preliminary economic analysis using reasonably anticipated prices and costs, is deemed to have potential for the discovery of commercial hydrocarbons.

        Proved area. The part of a property to which proved reserves have been specifically attributed.

        Proved developed reserves. Reserves that can be expected to be recovered through (i) existing wells with existing equipment and operating methods or in which the cost of the required equipment is relatively minor compared with the cost of a new well or (ii) through installed extraction equipment and infrastructure operational at the time of the reserves estimate if the extraction is by means not involving a well.

       Proved Developed Producing Reserves (PDPs).  Reserves that can be expected to be recovered through existing wells with existing equipment and operating methods.  Additional crude oil, NGLs, and natural gas expected to be obtained through the application of fluid injection or other improved recovery techniques for supplementing the natural forces and mechanisms of primary recovery are included in “proved developed reserves” only after testing by a pilot project or after the operation of an installed program has confirmed through production response that increased recovery will be achieved.

       Proved Developed Non-Producing Reserves (PDNPs). Proved crude oil, NGLs, and natural gas reserves that are developed behind pipe, shut-in or that can be recovered through improved recovery only after the necessary equipment has been installed, or when the costs to do so are relatively minor.  Shut-in reserves are expected to be recovered from (1) completion intervals which are open at the time of the estimate but which have not started producing, (2) wells that were shut-in for market conditions or pipeline connections, or (3) wells not capable of production for mechanical reasons. Behind-pipe reserves are expected to be recovered from zones in existing wells that will require additional completion work or future recompletion prior to the start of production.

        Proved properties. Properties with proved reserves.

        Proved reserves. Those quantities of oil, natural gas and NGLs, which, by analysis of geoscience and engineering data, can be estimated with reasonable certainty to be economically producible—from a given date forward, from known reservoirs, and under existing economic conditions, operating methods and government regulations—prior to the time at which contracts providing the right to operate expire, unless evidence indicates that renewal is reasonably certain, regardless of whether deterministic or probabilistic methods are used for the estimation. The project to extract the hydrocarbons must have commenced or the operator must be reasonably certain that it will commence the project within a reasonable time. For a complete definition of proved oil and natural gas reserves, refer to the SEC’s Regulation S-X, Rule 4-10(a)(22).

        Proved Undeveloped Reserves (PUDs). Reserves that are expected to be recovered from new wells on undrilled acreage, or from existing wells where a relatively major expenditure is required for development.  Reserves on undrilled acreage are limited to those drilling units offsetting productive units that are reasonably certain of production when drilled.  Proved reserves for other undrilled units are claimed only where it can be demonstrated with reasonable certainty that there is continuity of production from the existing productive formation.  Estimates for proved undeveloped reserves will not be attributable to any acreage for which an application of fluid injection or other improved recovery technique is contemplated, unless such techniques have been proved effective by actual tests in the area and in the same reservoir or an analogous reservoir.
(i) The area of the reservoir considered as proved includes: (A) the area identified by drilling and limited by fluid contacts, if any, and (B) adjacent undrilled portions of the reservoir that can, with reasonable certainty, be judged to be continuous with it and to contain economically producible crude oil, NGLs or natural gas on the basis of available geoscience and engineering data.
(ii) In the absence of data on fluid contacts, proved quantities in a reservoir are limited by the lowest known hydrocarbons (“LKH”) as seen in a well penetration unless geoscience, engineering, or performance data and reliable technology establishes a lower contact with reasonable certainty.
(iii) Where direct observation from well penetrations has defined a highest known oil (“HKO”) elevation and the potential exists for an associated gas cap, proved oil reserves may be assigned in the structurally higher portions of the reservoir only if geoscience, engineering or performance data and reliable technology establish the higher contact with reasonable certainty.
(iv) Reserves which can be produced economically through application of improved recovery techniques (including, but not limited to, fluid injection) are included in the proved classification when: (A) successful testing by a pilot project in an area of the reservoir with properties no more favorable than in the reservoir as a whole, the operation of an installed program in the reservoir or an analogous reservoir, or other evidence using reliable technology establishes the reasonable certainty of the engineering analysis on which the project or program was based; and (B) the project has been approved for development by all necessary parties and entities, including governmental entities.
(v) Existing economic conditions include prices and costs at which economic producibility from a reservoir is to be determined. The price shall be the average during the twelve-month period prior to the ending date of the period covered by the report, determined as an unweighted arithmetic average of the first-day-of-the-month price for each month within such period, unless prices are defined by contractual arrangements, excluding escalations based on future conditions.

        Realized price. The cash market price less all expected quality, transportation and demand adjustments.

        Reasonable certainty. A high degree of confidence that quantities will be recovered. For a complete definition of reasonable certainty, refer to the SEC’s Regulation S-X, Rule 4-10(a)(24).

        Recompletion. The completion for production of an existing wellbore in another formation from that which the well has been previously completed

        Reliable technology. Reliable technology is a grouping of one or more technologies (including computational methods) that has been field tested and has been demonstrated to provide reasonably certain results with consistency and repeatability in the formation being evaluated or in an analogous formation.

        Reserves. Estimated remaining quantities of oil and natural gas and related substances anticipated to be economically producible, as of a given date, by application of development projects to known accumulations. In addition, there must exist, or there must be a reasonable expectation that there will exist, the legal right to produce or a revenue interest in the production, installed means of delivering oil and natural gas or related substances to market and all permits and financing required to implement the project.

        Reservoir. A porous and permeable underground formation containing a natural accumulation of producible oil and/or natural gas that is confined by impermeable rock or water barriers and is individual and separate from other reservoirs.

        Resources. Quantities of oil and natural gas estimated to exist in naturally occurring accumulations. A portion of the resources may be estimated to be recoverable and another portion may be considered to be unrecoverable. Resources include both discovered and undiscovered accumulations.

        Royalty. An interest in an oil and natural gas lease that gives the owner the right to receive a portion of the production from the leased acreage (or of the proceeds from the sale thereof), but does not require the owner to pay any portion of the production or development costs on the leased acreage. Royalties may be either landowner’s royalties, which are reserved by the owner of the leased acreage at the time the lease is granted, or overriding royalties, which are usually reserved by an owner of the leasehold in connection with a transfer to a subsequent owner.

        Service well. A well drilled or completed for the purpose of supporting production in an existing field. Specific purposes of service wells include gas injection, water injection, steam injection, air injection, salt-water disposal, water supply for injection, observation, or injection for in-situ combustion.

        Spacing. The distance between wells producing from the same reservoir. Spacing is often expressed in terms of acres, e.g., 40-acre spacing, and is often established by regulatory agencies.

        Spot market price. The cash market price without reduction for expected quality, transportation and demand adjustments.

        Spud. Commenced drilling operations on an identified location.

        Stacked hydrocarbon-bearing formations. Vertically layered geologic zones that exist at differing underground depths and are capable of producing oil, natural gas and NGLs. The existence of stacked-hydrocarbon bearing formations enables the development of multiple hydrocarbon bearing zones from a common surface area.

        Standardized measure. Discounted future net cash flows estimated by applying year-end prices to the estimated future production of year-end proved reserves. Future cash inflows are reduced by estimated future production and development costs based on period-end costs to determine pre-tax cash inflows. Future income taxes, if applicable, are computed by applying the statutory tax rate to the excess of pre-tax cash inflows over our tax basis in the oil and natural gas properties. Future net cash inflows after income taxes are discounted using a 10% annual discount rate.

        Stratigraphic test well. A drilling effort, geologically directed, to obtain information pertaining to a specific geologic condition. Such wells customarily are drilled without the intent of being completed for hydrocarbon production. The classification also includes tests identified as core tests and all types of expendable holes related to hydrocarbon exploration. Stratigraphic tests are classified as “exploratory type” if not drilled in a known area or “development type” if drilled in a known area.

        Success rate. The percentage of wells drilled which produce hydrocarbons in commercial quantities.

       Unconventional Play. An area believed to be capable of producing crude oil, NGLs, and/or natural gas occurring in cumulations that are regionally extensive but require recently developed technologies to achieve profitability.  These areas tend to have low permeability and may be closely associated with source rock as this is the case with crude oil and natural gas shale, tight crude oil and natural gas sands and coal bed methane.

        Undeveloped acreage. Lease acreage on which wells have not been drilled or completed to a point that would permit the production of commercial quantities of oil and natural gas regardless of whether such acreage contains proved reserves.

        Unit, drilling unit or spacing unit.    The joining of all or substantially all interests in a reservoir or field, rather than a single tract, to provide for development and operation without regard to separate property interests. Also, the area covered by a unitization agreement.

        Unproved properties.    Properties with no proved reserves.

       Wellbore.    The hole drilled by the bit that is equipped for oil, natural gas and NGL production on a completed well. Also called well or borehole.

     Working interest. The right granted to the lessee of a property to develop and produce and own natural gas or other minerals. The working interest owners bear the exploration, development and operating costs on either a cash, penalty or carried basis.

        Workover. Operations on a producing well to restore or increase production.

        WTI. West Texas Intermediate. A light, sweet blend of oil produced from the fields in West Texas.

 

If you wish to speak with an attorney about your needs and questions in any of these areas, please contact us at info@secorplaw.com.

Interested in our services?
We would appreciate hearing from you.